As promised this time around I’ll depart from the works of Aristophanes to examine the fragmentary remains of a work by another genius of Ancient Greek Comedy, in this case Eupolis. Eupolis was part of the Big Three of Ancient Greek Comedy (henceforth AGC) along with Aristophanes and Cratinus. Some people confuse Eupolis with the later Greek comedian Eubulus but manage to lead fairly normal lives just the same. (rimshot)


Demoi is considered to be Eupolis’ greatest political satire. The premise is simplicity itself. An Athenian named Pyronides, like many of his fellow citizens, is disgusted with the pettiness, corruption and incompetence of the current crop of political and military leaders in the great city-state. Thus motivated, Pyronides retrieves four of the greatest figures of Athens’ storied past from the Netherworld and brings them back with him so they may set things right.


In my introductory post about AGC (see above) I illustrated the similar problems faced by the Athenians’ ancient experiment in popular rule and our own often teetering enterprise. Corruption, partisanship and a tendency to subordinate the general good in the name of personal gain  were as rampant then as now.

As all  societies are prone to do, the Athenians romanticised the leaders of the past, believing them to be of a heroic stature lacking in the current crop of Athenian politicians and generals. Pyronides sets out to restore the cultural and political capital of the Hellenic world to its glory days by descending into Hades’ realm and returning with Pericles, Miltiades, Aristeides and Solon the Lawgiver (just in case you thought I meant Solon the Bus Driver ). 

We do not know how Pyronides obtained permission from Hades to bring the four men back to the world of the living because that portion of the play has not survived. 

The four returnees are greeted jubilantly by the Athenians and various topical jokes are exchanged as the citizens anticipate seeing the great men deal with their inadequate successors in the political and military spheres. There is a nostalgic joke about the odd, conical shape of Pericles’ head, a running gag when the statesman was alive.

Another joke centers around Pericles asking about his illegitimate son by his mistress Aspasia. That question is followed by each of the returning figures (Night of the Living Statesmen) comparing Athens as it is and the way it was in the supposedly golden past, providing plenty of opportunities for jokes about changing fashions and social attitudes as well as the failings and scandals of the present leaders.

Members of the chorus, representing the 139 demoi (communities) of the Athenian democracy, each come forward with specific sarcastic complaints about how they are suffering under the current leadership and our four returnees disperse to set things right in each of their areas of expertise.

Miltiades the great general sets straight a current Athenian general, but arguments rage over which general is meant by the fragmentary evidence. Aristeides the Just drives away a member of the Athenian “accuser” class – political hacks who would bring trumped- up charges against the political enemies of their patrons, costing those enemies legal fees and possibly the confiscation of their property (of which these professional accusers would receive a percentage).

Solon takes down either a corrupt judge or a Sophist skilled in distorting the laws to foil the pursuit of justice  (interpretations of the scene vary). See my synopsis of The Clouds for an explanation of the link between Sophists and the law. The scene with Pericles dealing with his designated villain is the most fragmentary and translators argue over which corrupt political leader he reprimands. Some say Hyperbolos, others, more scandalously inclined, say he chews out his own political protege and male lover Alcibiades. 

The four great men are applauded for their accomplishments in “cleaning up” Athens but the final fragments do not survive, so we do not know if they immediately returned to the Netherworld or stayed to make sure Athens never again fell into such a low state.


** Eupolis was younger than Aristophanes and both were junior to Cratinus but there was a period of a few years when all three competed on the Athenian stage at the same time. Eupolis saw his first comedy (The Prospaltians) performed when he was 17, two years younger than Aristophanes when his first comedy was performed.

** Though Aristophanes was generally considered the greatest Athenian comic poet (the comedies were all in verse and included songs) various ancient commentaries try to make a case for Eupolis and present Demoi as a work equal to, or exceeding, the greatest works of the Big A.

** The inclusion of Pericles as one of the returning statesmen was a controversial choice for its day. This is ironic by our standards because today if you put a gun to a stranger’s head and told them to name one ancient Greek statesman (I’ve tried this but people these days just have no sense of humor) I’d bet Pericles would be the only one they could come up with.

But back when Demoi was first performed Pericles was still regarded with some bitterness for embroiling the Athenian Alliance in the Peloponnesian War and for his disastrous strategy in fighting that war. Eupolis must have had some trepidation about how the figure would be received in his comedy and according to one ancient commentary, when the actor playing Pericles first made his entrance “there was a pregnant pause, followed by general acclaim”.

** Based on some of the fragments, a few scholars argue that Phrynis, a leading figure in the New Music scene in Athens at the time, is also depicted being driven off by Solon.

** Pericles the Younger, the great man’s son by Aspasia, was one of the current crop of Athenian politicians being savaged in this satire.

** There is much academic debate over how some of the fragments may imply other figures were returned from the dead, such as Harmodios the Tyrant Slayer or Peisistratos, who overthrew the Athenian monarchy. Keeping with the theme of America’s founding fathers being considered “inheritors” of ancient Greek Democracy, “The American Harmodios” was one of the early but forgotten nicknames applied to George Washington after our successful revolution.

** One of the “unworthy” current Athenian politicians is jokingly described as “changing his colors like an octopus” the way we would say someone “changes his colors like a chameleon” to describe a political figure who gutlessly blows along with the latest trend, rather than maintaining a principled stance. 

** It’s fun to picture how left-wing zealots or right-wing zealots would deal with an adaptation of Demoi. Left-wingers would no doubt include John F Kennedy as one of the returnees and right- wingers would no doubt include Ronald Reagan as one. The left would probably resurrect Franklin Roosevelt given the New Deal’s impact on our nation and the right would likely view Eisenhower as a soldier/ statesman in the mold of Miltiades. But who else? Would they stick to recent decades and return Martin Luther King, Jr (for left-wingers) or William F Buckley, Jr (for right wingers)? And what about Sammy Davis, Jr? And Junior Samples for that matter? (I’m kidding)

Or would they reach back much further to try to find “common ground” by returning the four on Mt Rushmore – Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt? More likely it would devolve into a bitter argument over which figures best represent America’s past.  That’s how I would adapt it for the stage, by the way.

Since some translators insist that Pyronides had a sidekick I’d picture a Democratic Donkey and a Republican Elephant traveling to the Netherworld, but being incapable of deciding on who to bring back. Amid increasingly bitter exchanges they’d each bring back four of their own choosing and instead of picturing them succeeding in driving off current villains I’d depict each group of four clashing with the other over their competing visions of what’s best for the nation.   

** Once again it’s easy to feel the bond of our common humanity with the ancient Athenians through a comedy. In this play’s case modern readers can certainly relate to the way that controversial leaders dead and gone have a mystique that makes their devotees believe the country “needs someone like that nowadays”.  In my own view, however, that type of thinking is pointless at best and dangerous at worst.

The human tendency toward embellishment always distorts the historical memory of long- dead figures and I believe political leaders are the least deserving figures of such posthumous regard. They cease to be flawed human beings in the cultural memory and become symbols exploited by left-wing zealots and right- wing zealots for their own shrill partisan purposes.

The only thing more dangerous is to regard living political leaders with such worshipful devotion. During the Reagan years he had a following of mindless worshippers but I never let that affect my contempt for him and I don’t let the way the equally repulsive and clueless Obama has a following of mindless worshippers affect my contempt for him.


© Edward Wozniak and Balladeer’s Blog, 2011. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Edward Wozniak and Balladeer’s Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content




Filed under Ancient Greek Comedy

54 responses to “ANCIENT GREEK COMEDY: DEMOI (C 417 BCE)

  1. omg this is so fantastic. ur right these comedies could still be done today.

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  3. Interesting read. u have a way of making these ancient things seem relevant. Most people make it seem so boring.

  4. I adore these greek comedy posts. Especially this non-Aristophanes 1 since u get so much Aristophanes stuff everywhere. I hope the musical Lysistrata Jones gets a lot of people reading ur stuff.

  5. I love the way u write these … no liberal slant and no conservative slant, just ur own unique take on how these comedies would be relevant today

  6. Never heard of these but when I look them up after I read them here they all exist. u r fantastic for sharing all this. I luv how bi-partisan ur approach is, 2.

  7. This was very thought-provoking! It has me wondering what 4 figures I would bring back to fix the world at large. That would be a good conversation- starter anytime in fact!

  8. God I love how you are so even handed in the way you cover things! It’s fun reading about these old comedies the way you do it. I’m sure a university professor would be trying to browbeat their students into only seeing a left-wing view of these stories.

  9. Good way to present this. Most people wouldn’t care about these old comedies but you give them 21st Century relevance.

  10. Your blog stimulates my mind like nobody else does. I love how you tie history and politics and social commentary into these incredibly ancient works of art.

  11. What a great way u have of making these comedies seem so contemporary. I like how fair u are 2 about the politics.

  12. It is amazing to me how you make these old plays so much fun and so understandable. This is my favorite but I’ve really enjoyed the others, too.

  13. Really wonderful look at this political satire. And I have to ask -what 4 figures would you bring back to fix things?

    • Sorry to be a downer but I wouldn’t want to bring anyone back. I think figures from the past don’t deserve the romantic, nostalgic regard they receive and I don’t think they would have the solutions to our current problems.

  14. I’m a Greek American and I love learning more about my family’s older culture. I was assuming you were a woman because of how passionately you write but I see your a man. Are you married?

  15. You did a great job making this contemporary. I came up with my own mental list of what past figures I’d like to see brought back to fix things!

  16. Unbelievably stirring! If someone had told me ancient comedies would still be so relevant I’d have thought they were crazy until I read your articles about them! The Athenians were so like … us!

  17. I think you hit the target with this: “More likely it would devolve into a bitter argument over which figures best represent America’s past. That’s how I would adapt it for the stage, by the way.”

    I’m always kind of amazed by the people who hold up people from American history as if they were truly saints. (To be honest, I’m not even sure about some of the saints labeled saints. I’m not sure it’s more virtuous to commit suicide than “allow” oneself to be raped, for example. What virtue is there in committing an act of violence against yourself in the face of violence from someone else? Sorry, tangent.I’m sure they were nice, and all, but not sure this is “role model” material.)

    The founders did give us powerful ideas and were smart in their crafting of the Constitution, etc. I don’t think they could save us, though. I’m not sure any person or group can really save the mess right now. If we glance at history, it would seem the world is kind of losing its composure. The biggest elephant in the room, to me, is the fact the old-school rulers aren’t really the ones running things anymore–except, maybe, in some of the backwaters of the world. The top tier movers and shakers owe their soul to other parties and interests.

    The challenge, as I see it, isn’t to resurrect the correct old leaders/heroes, it’s to resurrect the heart of what the Constitution and Bill of Rights stood for in 1776 and imagine it for our times. I mean, we now have the kind of technology that could allow for direct democracy or a form of government that could happen–wiki-style. Open source humanity. It could be a mess, too, but I think it would be interesting to see this given a shot. Good ideas don’t really die well enough to stay dead. Freedom is a really good idea.

    • Very nice and very moving, CM.

      I know what you mean – the constitution was written to deal with a lot of potential threats, but not specifically the two parties who have invaded the body politic like a cancer. Their infection has spread too far and wide. They couldn’t be removed without the host body dying itself, something that may happen with or without us doing anything.

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  19. Hi there! This is my favorite greek comedy so far! Your takes on these are always timely and make me think.

  20. I would love to see you adapt these for the stage but liberal and conservative nutjobs would go bananas over how you insult them.

  21. This is my favorite Greek comedy u’ve done. I’ll b thinking now about what 4 people I would want brought back.

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  23. I am falling in love with these ancient Greek comedies you write about!

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  26. Im no expert, but I feel you just crafted an excellent point about political idolatry.

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